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membrane technology

A membrane is a selective layer that allows certain components to pass while rejecting others. Membrane technology uses these selective layers for efficient separation without the need for phase transitions. The actual membrane is typically a thin film manufactured from polymers, metals, or ceramics. Membranes can operate with liquid or gaseous feed streams and can be either dense or porous.  

Pressure-driven process

Membranes are manufactured in various geometries: flat sheets, spiral wound, capillary, and tubular. Separation by means of membranes requires concentration or pressure difference as the driving force. In pressure-driven water applications, membranes are categorized by pore size:

Microfiltration with a pore size of 0.1 to 1 µm 
Ultrafiltration with a pore size of 5 - 100 nm 
Nanofiltration with a pore size of 1 - 5 nm

Reverse osmosis uses dense membranes without pores to desalinate seawater and produce potable water. In gas separation, membranes are used to separate oxygen from nitrogen or to improve natural gas quality by removing carbon dioxide.

Versatile technology

Membrane technology is used in a wide variety of processes, such as desalination, water purification, beer clarification, gas separation, and electrodialysis.

With X-Flow membranes, Pentair develops and manufactures the ideal membrane technology for every industry and filtration application.


Type of membranes | X-Flow

We offer information pages on our website where you can find detailed information about polymeric membranes, hollow fiber membranes, tubular membranes, capillary membranes, fiber membranes, water filtration, membrane filtration and membrane separation.

If you have any questions, please contact us.


Polymeric membranes 

Pentair X-Flow - The selection of the right polymeric membrane depends on your process requirements
Pentair X-Flow Hollow fiber membranes present a cost-effective way to filtrate large volumes

Hollow fiber membranes

tubular membranes

Pentair X-Flow -Tubular membranes are usually made of a supporting material with a polymeric outside layer
Pentair X-Flow - capillary membranes with an outer diameter of 3 millimeter (0.118 inch) or less

Capillary membranes

fiber membranes

Pentair X-Flow Fiber-membranes have a very thin layer with a specific pore size distribution
Pentair X-Flow Water-filtration removes undesirable particles

Water filtration

Membrane filtration

Pentair X-Flow Membrane filtration - membranes with different pore sizes are available for different particles
Pentair X-Flow - Membrane separation is achieved by a thin film

Membrane separation