In membrane filtration today, polymers like poly(ether)sulfones, polysiloxanes, and polyamides are the most common materials used to create the barrier and achieve the separation. Membranes with different pore sizes are available for different particles.
|Removable Particles||PORE SIZE|
|MF||Pollen, Asbestos, Bacteria, Cells||0.1 - 1 µm|
|UF||Virus, Colloidals, Emulsions, Turbidity
||5 - 100 nm|
|NF||Vitamins, Sugars, Colour
||1 - 5 nm|
|RO||Salts, small organic substances||0.1 - 1 nm|
Separation in RO is achieved by applying a pressure on the contaminated solution that is higher than its osmotic pressure. This makes it possible to remove ions from water and, for example, desalinate seawater under pressures between 60 and 80 bar (870 to 1160 psi).
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